Digital private copying
Private copying schemes are an efficient means to manage rights in the digital era. Visual works identification is still very difficult due to the way visual works are created and published. Digital copies of works maybe found up-loaded and made available to the public on the internet from various sources, from pre-existing analogue copies in books, postcards etc or when published under exceptions. Contracts might foresee waivers of the right to be credited and the entry of authors personnal metadata not the case. Registration is an insufficient means because it puts a heavy burden on the authors because they will have to provide images prepared by their own means for registration.
Collective management organisations license world-wide online usage via OnLineArt to musems, libraries, archives educational institions, publishers, advertisers private users and any other commercial or non-commercial entity. Yet, subsequent uses from licensed usage, use under exceptions and others need to be adequatly renumerated via a digital private copy exception subject to a royalty managed by a collective management organisation. Otherwise, the benefit from the digital environment will not reach the authors.
Lexxon Compass study 2012 on Welfare of Private copyring receptions